A few days ago revealed that 35% of the great barrier reef has died, by climate change something regrettable the great barrier reef Australia is in danger of disappearing. This natural paradise – that they have 2,300 km. in length and can be distinguished from space – is suffering a massive bleaching, the tone becomes when he is dying, due to global warming. After months of aerial and underwater research, a group of researchers discovered that one-third of the coral’s central and northern areas are dead or dying. In some parts of the barrier already nearly half of the coral has been lost. The most critical points are located off the coast of Townsville and Papua, New Guinea.
Professor Terry Hughes, an expert of coral reefs of the James Cook University in Townsville, in the Australian State of Queensland, warned that global warming is devastating one of the most emblematic places of their country. «We found that, on average, 35% of corals are dead or in the process of decomposition in 84 reefs we studied in northern areas and centre of the great barrier reef,» warned a statement signed by three large universities that participated in the research.
This is one of the major ecosystems of the world and we are killing them.
Reefs are affected by the action of nature such as currents, you hurricane and storm without however, the indiscriminate use of their resources, fishing with dynamite, trawling, anchors towing, collecting corals for trade, the dredging in areas near or in the same reef, oil spills, organic pollution caused by the improper treatment of wastewater and the work of construction and deforestation on the nearby coast, produce sediment that cloud the waters on reefs and in some cases kill coral polyps. The consequences of irresponsible divers carried out without a guide when it flaps near the bottom in addition to this work of destruction or corals manipulate are continually. Likewise, the practice of nautical sports, such as waterskiing and sea bikes, are a threat to high speeds generated. It is estimated that 5 to 10 percent of the reefs in the Caribbean have disappeared as a result of human action. The highest degree of deterioration of the reefs around the world was recorded in the 80’s. An affected coral may be taken more than 25 years to recover and that in case of to it.
The rapid growth of algae on the reef can kill corals since they compete with each other by light and space. But corals have evolved for millions of years and have adapted to defend themselves from natural causes. The high fertility, production of Nematocysts, extend their polyps only at night are just a sample of these adaptations. So far they have been very successful.
Unfortunately, there are other threats for which has not been adapted. The effects of anthropogenic pollution, deforestation, indiscriminate extraction and overfishing are some of the factors that could destabilize the ecosystem. Pollution can affect the corals in various ways.
Any substance that may affect the clarity of the water as excess sedimentation caused by the dredging of the coasts, the erosion caused by deforestation, affect the zooxanthellae and fotosintetizar ability. Wastewater and fertilizers increase the amount of organic matter and therefore cause eutrification in water. This stimulates the growth of algae that grow faster than corals to stifle the polyps and compete with coral for space on the ocean floor. Pollutants by chemical or biological agents can be toxic and kill corals. The discharge of hot water from power generating plants is as lethal as any poison as corals are adapted to stable temperatures in the tropics. Fishermen, divers and visitors can affect in several ways to the reef, example of this can be, damages caused by anchors of their boats, littering or altering the balance of communities to catch too many fish and endangering the reproductive capacity of populations. Some evidence that show that reefs may be at risk are being reported in recent years.
Coral bleaching has been described in many tropical areas including the Caribbean. Bleaching is caused by the expulsion of zooxanthellae and has been attributed to small increases in temperature. This has partnered to the mortality of many colonies of corals that sometimes seem to recover naturally. Black band disease has been described as necrotic tissue that grows in corals and seems to be caused by the cyanobacteria Phormidium corallyticum.
Reefs at risk of severe degradation in the future are in East Africa; in the South, Southeast and East Asia; and in all the Caribbean.